SECTION 6: DOCTORAL STANDARDS COUNSELOR EDUCATION AND SUPERVISION
A. THE DOCTORAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Doctoral degree programs in Counselor Education and Supervision are intended to prepare graduates to work as counselor educators, supervisors, researchers, and practitioners in academic and clinical settings. The doctoral program standards are intended to accommodate the unique strengths of different programs.
- The doctoral program consists of a minimum of 48 semester hours or 72 quarter hours of doctoral-level credits beyond the entry-level degree.
- Doctoral programs (a) extend the knowledge base of the counseling profession in a climate of scholarly inquiry, (b) prepare students to inform professional practice by generating new knowledge for the profession, (c) support faculty and students in publishing and/or presenting the results of scholarly inquiry, and (d) equip students to assume positions of leadership in the profession and/or their area(s) of specialization.
- Doctoral program admission criteria include (a) academic aptitude for doctoral-level study; (b) previous professional experience; (c) fitness for the profession, including self-awareness and emotional stability; (d) oral and written communication skills; (e) cultural sensitivity and awareness; and (f) potential for scholarship, professional leadership, and advocacy.
- During the doctoral program admissions process, students’ curricular experiences are evaluated to verify completion of coursework including (a) CACREP entry-level core curricular standards, (b) CACREP entry-level professional practice standards, and (c) CACREP entry-level curricular requirements of a specialty area (e.g., addiction counseling, school counseling) so that any missing content can be completed before or concurrently with initial doctoral-level counselor education coursework.
- Doctoral students must complete dissertation research focusing on areas relevant to counseling practice, counselor education, and/or supervision.
- Doctoral programs require two core counselor education program faculty in addition to the minimum three core counselor education program faculty members required for entry-level programs.
- Students in doctoral-level programs establish an approved doctoral committee and work with the committee to develop and complete a program of study.
B. DOCTORAL PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY
Doctoral programs in counselor education address professional roles in five doctoral core areas: counseling, supervision, teaching, research and scholarship, and leadership and advocacy. These five doctoral core areas represent the foundational knowledge required of doctoral graduates in counselor education. Therefore, counselor education programs must document where each of the lettered standards listed below is covered in the curriculum.
- scholarly examination of theories relevant to counseling
- integration of theories relevant to counseling
- conceptualization of clients from multiple theoretical perspectives
- evidence-based counseling practices
- methods for evaluating counseling effectiveness
- ethical and culturally relevant counseling in multiple settings
- purposes of clinical supervision
- theoretical frameworks and models of clinical supervision
- roles and relationships related to clinical supervision
- skills of clinical supervision
- opportunities for developing a personal style of clinical supervision
- assessment of supervisees’ developmental level and other relevant characteristics
- modalities of clinical supervision and the use of technology
- administrative procedures and responsibilities related to clinical supervision
- evaluation, remediation, and gatekeeping in clinical supervision
- legal and ethical issues and responsibilities in clinical supervision
- culturally relevant strategies for conducting clinical supervision
- roles and responsibilities related to educating counselors
- pedagogy and teaching methods relevant to counselor education
- models of adult development and learning
- instructional and curriculum design, delivery, and evaluation methods relevant to counselor education
- effective approaches for online instruction
- screening, remediation, and gatekeeping functions relevant to teaching
- assessment of learning
- ethical and culturally relevant strategies used in counselor preparation
- the role of mentoring in counselor education
- RESEARCH AND SCHOLARSHIP
- research designs appropriate to quantitative and qualitative research questions
- univariate and multivariate research designs and data analysis methods
- qualitative designs and approaches to qualitative data analysis
- emergent research practices and processes
- models and methods of instrument design
- models and methods of program evaluation
- research questions appropriate for professional research and publication
- professional writing for journal and newsletter publication
- professional conference proposal preparation
- design and evaluation of research proposals for a human subjects/institutional review board review
- grant proposals and other sources of funding
- ethical and culturally relevant strategies for conducting research
- LEADERSHIP AND ADVOCACY
- theories and skills of leadership
- leadership and leadership development in professional organizations
- leadership in counselor education programs
- knowledge of accreditation standards and processes
- leadership, management, and administration in counseling organizations and other institutions
- leadership roles and strategies for responding to crises and disasters
- strategies of leadership in consultation
- current topical and political issues in counseling and how those issues affect the daily work of counselors and the counseling profession
- role of counselors and counselor educators advocating on behalf of the profession and professional identity
- models and competencies for advocating for clients at the individual, system, and policy levels
- strategies of leadership in relation to current multicultural and social justice issues
- ethical and culturally relevant leadership and advocacy practices
C. DOCTORAL LEVEL PRACTICUM AND INTERNSHIP
- Doctoral students participate in a supervised doctoral-level counseling practicum of a minimum of 100 hours, of which 40 hours must be providing direct counseling services. The nature of doctoral-level practicum experience is to be determined in consultation with counselor education program faculty and/or a doctoral committee.
- During the doctoral student’s practicum, supervision is provided by a counselor education program faculty member or an individual with a graduate degree (preferably doctoral) in counseling or a related mental health profession with specialized expertise to advance the student’s knowledge and skills.
- Individuals serving as practicum supervisors have (1) relevant certifications and/or licenses, (2) knowledge of the program’s expectations, requirements, and evaluation procedures for students, and (3) relevant training in counseling supervision.
- Doctoral students participate in an average of one hour per week of individual and/or triadic supervision throughout the practicum. When individual/triadic supervision is provided by the counselor education program faculty, practicum courses should not exceed a 1:6 faculty:student ratio
- Group supervision is provided on a regular schedule with other students throughout the practicum and must be performed by a counselor education program faculty member. Group supervision of practicum students should not exceed a 1:12 faculty:student ratio.
- Doctoral students are covered by individual professional counseling liability insurance policies while enrolled in practicum.
- Doctoral students are required to complete internships that total a minimum of 600 clock hours. The 600 hours must include supervised experiences in at least three of the five doctoral core areas (counseling, teaching, supervision, research and scholarship, leadership and advocacy). Doctoral students are covered by individual professional counseling liability insurance policies while enrolled in a counseling or supervision internship.
- During internships, the student receives an average of one hour per week of individual and/or triadic supervision, performed by a supervisor with a doctorate in counselor education or an individual with a graduate degree and specialized expertise to advance the student’s knowledge and skills.
- Group supervision is provided on a regular schedule with other students throughout the internship and must be performed by a counselor education program faculty member.